Price 6400 + VAT
DURATION 5 Days

Course Overview

The proposed course will cover the theoretical constrains of wireless communication networks as well as practical constrains, due to availability of components. The emphasis is on the practical aspects of components selection and understanding their specifications.
Other proposed issues that will be covered briefly are regarding various practical aspects in wireless communication as system designs, modern modulation schemes and hazards

Course Outline:

1. Wireless Communication – Introduction) (0.5 day)
• Short History of wireless communication.
• Constrains of wireless communication: energy propagation & channel capacity.
• Noise in communication systems
• Sensitivity
• Units and the meaning: dB, dBm, dBW, dBi, DBV/m (filed strength) and conversion between the units.

2. Transmission Lines (0.5 day)
• Purpose
• Physical energy transfer – propagation modes
• Impedance definition
• Return loss
• Understanding S-parameters
• Voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR)
• Practical examples.

3. Passive Components (0.5 day)
• Cables and waveguides
– Purpose & how are they built and how do they work
– Coax propagation modes
– Waveguides propagation modes
– Parameters of coax and waveguides such as attenuation per length, bandwidth, propagation speed, impedance, leakage, available connectors, size, bend radius, material, diameter, peak voltage, cutoff frequency, weight, environmental limitations
– Several examples of coax lines: standard RG types, semi rigid, flexible, low loss, leaky
– Several examples of waveguides such as straight, twisted, flexible, corrugated and other
• Connectors
– Limiters
– Attenuators
– Terminators
– Coax line connectors’ main parameters: frequency, fitted coax, size, cost, & environmental.
– Popular connectors types:

– BNC
– N type
– SMA
– MCX
– MMCX

– Reverse thread connectors & Reverse F & M connectors
– Waveguides accessories.
– Adaptors.
• Couplers & Combiners
– Power combiner/divider
–  Usage and operation
– Types:

– 0º
– 180º (Balun)
– Quardrature
– Multiport

– Constrains:

– Bandwidth
– Insertion loss
– Mismatch effects on isolation and insertion loss

– Examples
– Couplers:
– usage and operation
– Types:

– 3 ports
– bi-directional coupler
– dual directional coupler

– Constrains:

– Bandwidth
– Coupling coefficient
– Tolerance & flatness
– Main-Line & coupling loss
– Directivity
– VSWR

– Examples
• Isolators and circulators
– Usage and operation
– Constrains:

– Bandwidth
– Power rating
– Loss
– Isolation
– Size
– Types: circulator, isolator, waveguides, drop-in.

4. Filters  (0.5 day)
• Introduction
• Purpose
– Channel selectivity
– Noise reduction – SNR improvement, matched signal
– Interference canceling
– Spectral shaping
– Anti aliasing
• Types
– Band-pass
– Low-pass
– High-pass
– Notch
– Diplexers
• Synthesis of filters
– Time and frequency duality
– S – plane
– Creation of filters by poles and zeros.
– Chebyshev and Butterworth implementations.
– Creation of poles and zeros with LC.
• Filters specifications & constrains
– Concept of Q
– 1 dB and 3 dB bandwidth vs. noise bandwidth
– Insertion loss
– Selectivity
– Amplitude ripple
– Phase ripple
– Number of sectors & how to calculate them
– VSWR
– Cost, size and weight
• Filters construction
– Lumped elements, LC filters
– Cavity
– Ceramic
– Crystal
– Microstrip
– Glimpse at digital filters

– zero poles filters (FIR)
–  Implementation in SAW & BAW – practical aspects.

• Tunable filters
• How to select a filter – practical

5. Noise & SNR (0.5 day)
• Channel capacity – Shannon theorem
– Explanation.
– Example.
• Sensitivity– improving SNR (signal to noise ratio)
• Matched signal theorem
• Noise sources in communication systems
– Thermal noise
– Phase noise
– Men made noise
– Sky noise
• Black body theorem
– Plank formula
– Approximation in MW frequencies (kTB)
– Noise density
– Examples
• Noise figure concept
– Definition
– Amplifiers noise figures
– Passive components noise figure
– Translation of noise figures into voltage noise (detectors, operational amplifiers)
• System noise figure
– Access gain (over gain) concept
– Cascaded system noise figure
• Practical examples6. Non Linear Effects in MW components  (0.5 day)
• Non linearity effects on RF signals
– Compression effect
– Harmonics distortion
– Intermodulation
• Amplifier non-linearity models
• Intercept points definitions
– IP1
– IP2
– IP3
• Practical examples of computing spurious levels
– Single amplifier or limiting element
– Cascaded elements
• Dynamic range
– Sensitivity vs. signals distortion.
– Understanding the definitions:

– SFDR
– NPR
– ACPR
– MIMR
– PAR and EVM (in OFDM systems)

7. Antennas (1 day)
• What is the antenna?
– Radiation definition
– Space impedance
– Far field and near field
– Feeding the antenna
– Stubs, Baluns and impedance matching (option: Smith chart)
• Definitions of terms:
–  Resonant frequency
–  Gain
–  Radiation pattern
–  Impedance
–  Efficiency
–  Bandwidth
–  Polarization
–  Transmission and reception
• Practical formulas:
– Gain vs. beam-width
– Gain vs. effective area
• Antenna polarity
– Linear polarity
– Circular Polarity
– Gain loss due to unmatched polarity
• Antennas types, analysis & implementation:
– Dipole antenna
– Monopole antenna (Shot antenna)
– Yagi
– Parabolic antennas
– Array antennas
• Smart antennas
– Diversity
– Beams forming

8. Propagation  (1 day)
• EIRP
• Free space propagation
• Fersnel zone
• Ground multipath  – specular and diffused, flat and round earth effect (practical examples)
• Diffraction – knife edge effect
• Atmospheric effects – absorption, ducting
• Definition of fading links: flat, frequency selective & delay spread
• Fading effects:
– Frequency selective fading – ISI (inter symbol interference) effect
– Outage & link margin
• Mobile systems loss model: Okomura-Hata model
• Fading variation statistical model:
– Rayliegh
– Rician
• Propagation effect on signal spectrum
– Doppler effects
– Reflections
• Indoor propagation
• Overcoming propagation effects :
– Adaptive receivers
– Spread spectrum & rake receivers.
– OFDM – long symbols
– Diversity

9. Summary

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